The printed circuit board is the base of most electronics including computer components. Circuit boards are composed of a specified number of copper conductive layers, each of which has a substrate in between them. These conductive layers are then laminated together to create a circuit board. Circuit boards have drilled holes in them also called “vias.” Vias are either riveted or electroplated, making the connections electrical.

pcbThe very first printed circuit board was invented in 1936 by Paul Eisler, an Australian engineer. Eisler, a Vienna University graduate, created the circuit board as a component of a radio that he developed while he is in Hempstead, England. Eisler was an illegal alien in England, and upon his release in 1941, he started looking for investors to fund his invention. A Camberwell-based lithography firm took interest. The firm offered a contract which Eisler signed without reading. The company obtained the rights to Eisler’s ideas. Nonetheless, in 1943, Eisler was able to acquire patents for other printed circuit boards used in other applications other than radio. The US military noticed Eisler’s inventions where it used the circuit boards in creating bomb detonators. The bombs were used in countering the Germans’ military technologies. After the war, the US government gave the public the access to use printed circuit boards for commercial applications.

Further, there are many processes involved in manufacturing a printed circuit board.

First, a substrate is needed where the copper layer will be put above it. Second, the layer will be etched so that the copper residue will be removed. Etching will leave only the adequate copper amount required. Third, holes are then drilled into the substrate-and-copper. A laser or a tungsten-carbide drill will be used in drilling the vias although this will depend on the size of the vias. Fourth, specific areas of the board will be plated where the components will be put. Fifth, texts, if there are any, will be printed using a screen-printing procedure. Sixth, the circuit boards will be prepared for testing. After testing, seventh, the board will be populated with the wirings for its desired application.

The first circuit boards were used for industrial and military utilities. Today, circuit boards are used as the foundation of various electrical devices, components and hardware. One will find a printed circuit board in radios, televisions and cellular phones and other such devices. If you own an electronic device, you will probably find a circuit board inside if you will disassemble it. Circuit boards can be big or small and usually green in color. However, some circuit boards today come in red or blue colors. Regardless of its color, you will find copper lines and dots on the surface of the board.

Nowadays, most industries are using either rigid or flexible circuit board or both. The type of printed circuit board usually depends on the substrate used in manufacturing it. Flexible printed circuit boards are created to complement the requirement for miniaturization. We are living in a mobile era thus the need for thinner and lighter devices that we can carry anywhere we go. Flexible printed circuit boards which are smaller, more flexible and with higher wiring density is regarded as a solution. These printed circuit boards can be wired three-dimensionally. They can also be shaped according to the available space.

Evidently, the printed circuit boards that we came to know since Eisler’s have become more versatile in its form and application. Regardless though, for sophisticated equipment, components and devices, high quality printed circuit board must be a priority since they can hold the wirings and components together longer. Aside from technical expertise, the right material and drill can make a difference. Thereby, entrust your circuit board needs only to professionals.

Author Bio:
A Printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features.

Golf, a highly popular sport, requires a player to be precise, enduring, and strategic. With constant practice, these skills can be enhanced and improved. Having the best golf equipment would also greatly help a golf player succeed in this sport.

Callaway Golf, founded in 1982, is one of the leading manufacturers of golf equipment. The company, headquartered in California, design and market their products. They sell golf accessories and equipment to over 110 countries worldwide. They are the world’s largest designer of golf clubs.

Callaway golfThe ultimate goal of Callaway Golf is to let a golf player experience the thrill and joy of playing the extremely popular sport. Nothing compares the satisfaction of seeing a golf ball follow the exact path that you mentally picture in your head. This is one of the greatest rewards of playing golf. To help golfers achieve this dream, they have developed and designed only the best performing golf equipment there is on the planet.

Various types of golf clubs are available for golf players. Depending on what distance you want to hit the ball, a custom- designed club is available for you. They sell different types of golf clubs to tee off. Check out this list to find out the various types of clubs that the company offers its players:


If you drive a ball long distance, drivers add weight. They feature big metal club heads that should be reserved for holes that are par-5 and par-4.

Fairway Woods

If you shot from the fairway, use Fairway Woods. They are like drivers except for the club heads which are a lot smaller. The shafts are also shorter.


Hybrids are a mixture of an iron and fairway woods and provide greater accuracy.


Golfers use Irons if the ball is less than 200 yards from the hole. They are numbered from 1 to 9 and have a higher degree of loft than the Fairway Woods. The 9-iron has the most lofts. If you want to send the golf ball as far as you can, go for the 1, 2, and 3-irons. They are long and possess little loft. If the golf ball is about 150-170 yards away from the hole, use the 6-iron or the middle iron. If you want to throw the ball in the air right away, go for the short irons. They are the 7, 8, and 9-irons.


Make the ball fly high into the sky by using wedges. They have lofts higher than most clubs.

Complete Sets

To save you the hassle of choosing which clubs to buy, they offer complete sets that have everything a golf player needs in the field.

Apart from selling golf clubs, the company also sells brand-new, used, and custom golf balls. If you are a new player or have been playing golf for the longest time, they have everything you need to master the sport.

Playing golf coupled with having the best golf equipment and the perfect golf attire would help you enjoy the sport more. This is why the company also offers Polos, Shorts, Fleece, Mocks, and Golf Shoes for golf players. They also have accessories like GPS watches, belts, sunglasses, nets & mats, baseball caps, and head covers.

To keep your golf equipment, Callaway Golf offers stand bags, cart bags, and carry bags. They also have club cleaning accessories for your golf equipment to last longer.

Whatever you need, they have it. They will keep producing high-quality golf equipment and different golf accessories to help all golf players out there. Play golf like you have never played this sport before with Callaway Golf.


custom challenge coinsCustom challenge coins are a great way to show how much oneness and solidarity is valued amongst the members of your group or organization. Most people will find it more fulfilling to receive a coin of impeccable construction in an elegant pouch or case than to be handed yet another certificate printed on fancy paper in recognition of membership, achievement or simple brotherhood or sisterhood. Fortunately, having such coins made is not difficult, and you will not even have to leave your home or office to place an order for the very best in small customized metalwork.

The Internet is for Minting Custom Challenge Coins

Most minting companies make ordering challenge coins so easy that the only time you will have to leave your chair is when you get up to receive the delivery of the finished product! This is because all aspects of the transaction can be done over the internet. In fact, some companies go out of their way to make things even easier for potential customers by setting up chat lines and forms, so you do not even have to leave their website if you want to talk to them. You can use these avenues to ask any questions you have about the work that they do.

What may not be so easy is choosing which of the friendly and welcoming companies you’ll trust with your coins. To make a thoroughly informed decision, you’ll have to look beyond the company’s website to find what real people have to say about their work. Look for forums and blogs that are dedicated to challenge coins. Preferably, these will be run by individuals with no vested interests in the company, so that you can find out what their products and services are like from actual customers.

The Designs and Patterns on a Challenge Coin

It is no exaggeration to say that you can have anything you like to be placed on the challenge coins that you plan to make. The coins can handle a lot of detail, but since the design is stamped into them, you have to be sure that the details aren’t so fine that they meld into each other or are swallowed up by the enamel that is used to color the pattern. You will also have to leave a sizeable border just to be sure that your coins will not be irretrievably damaged if the pattern goes a little off center.

To make designing custom challenge coins a little easier, it is common practice for minting companies to have templates around which you can build the design for either side of your coins. You don’t necessarily have to stick to these, however. Just be sure that the resolution of any design you send for minting is at least 300 dpi so that no errors will be made for want of clarity.

The Practical Aspects of Minting Challenge Coins

The price of your custom challenge coins can vary quite a bit. The exact amount you’ll have to pay will depend on the size and quality of the raw materials for the coins, the intricacy and detail in the design, the extent of color usage and the number of coins you’ll ask for in one run. The minimum order requirement is usually in the hundreds, with 100 being the lowest number of coins you can order at a time, but some companies will do special runs at a slightly higher price.

The fee of coin minting includes the cost of the unique die they’ll need to make to stamp the coins, so expect smaller orders to cost more per coin than orders that number in the thousands: depending on the size of the batch, a single coin can cost anywhere from $2 to almost $5. If you need your coins in a hurry, you might need to pay a little extra so that they get to you in just 7 to 10 days.

Challenge Coins 4 Less will be pretty pleased to deliver custom challenge coins. Most of us won’t quit planning your current customized coins till you’re pleased with the way the style seems.