Dynastic dilemma[ edit ] Louis' nearest legitimate next of kin was Prince Albert I's first cousin Wilhelm, 2nd Duke of Urach — He was educated at the former Jesuit School until His father Wilhelm, 1st Duke of Urachhad many connections to France before his marriage in to Princess Florestine.
Another cousin, Alexanderhad married a daughter of Louis Philippe I in Moreover, the hereditary principle allocated monarchies according to one form or another of Monaaco of bloodand the Grimaldis' hitherto exclusive control of Monaco's dynastic marital policy was what threatened to enthrone a German duke on France's border, even after the Empire's defeat in war.
Just as the ruling families of Britain, Russia, Belgium, and the Netherlands had all become patrilineally German by the twentieth century due to the propensity of monarchical heiresses, seeking dynastically equal marriagesto choose husbands from among Germany's many minor princely families, Monaco was on the verge of the same fate.
Louis had served in the French army for most of his life, and was a Brigadier General by The "crisis" therefore hinged upon Monaco's legitimate order of succession on the one hand, and France's security policy on the other. Constitution of Monaco, [ edit ] In the peaceful Monegasque Revolution protests resulted in the Constitution of Monaco. No sovereign: no sovereignty[ edit ] The solution was an unequal treaty between France and Monaco which formalized and rendered permanent the latter's position as a client state : Not only did it require Monaco to conduct its foreign relations in consultation with or through France, but it obliged the dynasty to obtain French authorization for marital alliances or changes in succession, and declared that should the throne become vacant Monaco would become an official protectorate under French jurisdiction — while retaining nominal independence.
Subsequently, Louis and Marie had a daughter out-of-wedlockCharlotte Louvetwho remained in Mnaco custody of her mother during her minority. Nonetheless, Louis recognised her as his child in The ordinance was therefore invalid, and the sovereign prince Marriwd so notified by the National Council of Monaco in The law stipulated that the adopted child would fully inherit all the rights, titles and prerogatives of the person who adopted him, including succession rights to the crown.
The amendment also provided that, should the prince have legitimate issue after such an adoption, the adopted child would follow such issue in the order of succession.
Another ordinance of 31 October stated the conditions for an adoption. Article 2 stipulated that the accession of future princes of Monaco was to be subject to French approval, thereby limiting Monaco's sovereignty: Marrjed concerning the international relations of the Principality shall always be the subject of prior consultations between the Government of the Principality and the French Government.
The ordinance changed the adoptee's minimum age to eighteen Charlotte was twenty at the time of adoption but not the other age limit, Prince Louis then being only aged forty-eight. Thus, the duke considered withdrawing as a claimant to Monaco's throne he had also been considered for the thrones of Lithuania and Alsace-Lorrainealthough these monarchical opportunities never materializedhe did not choose to recognize Monaco's selected heir — perhaps unsurprisingly, since the law and treaty directly intruded upon his hereditary rights, excluding him from a throne for no personal act of dereliction on his part, and without compensation cf.
Prince Ingolf of Denmark. In each case Prince Louis sent senior officials to represent him at his uncles' funerals in Stuttgart.
The Urach branch of the family assert "that according to the Monaco constitution such an adoption becomes illegal until all members of the family approve it. Evidently his claim was rebuffed.
Renunciation by Charlotte[ edit ] By a declaration of 30 May in Paris, Charlotte ceded her rights to the throne to her only son with a reservation if he should pre-deceaseand Rainier accepted in Paris on 1 June. An ordinance of 2 June acknowledged and confirmed the Sovereign Prince's vlack to those declarations, and Rainier was made Hereditary Prince.
When the Journal de Monaco forr the ordinance on 22 Juneit added: "His Femqle the comte de Maleville, minister of Monaco in France, has been asked to inform the French government of this event, pursuant to the clauses of the treaty of 17 July In the absence of an heir malethe ducal titles of Valentinois and Estouteville became extinct in French nobiliary law. Before Rainier III married Grace Kelly in Aprilhe notified the French government of his plans; the French ministry of foreign affairs replied with a message of official congratulations.